Introduction to Linux Commands

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Linux commands are all in small(non-capital) letters. They are either abbreviations or few letters of words- "mv"(for move), "cpio"(for COpy In Out). In Linux, several commands can typed at once- separated by ";". The result of one command can be transferred as input for other commands-through "|""<",">".

1. ls list. Gives list of files in the directory
2. ls -llist long. Gives list of directory with details
3. cp copy. Copies the file to another given file
4. cd change directory. Moves the user to given directory
5. mvmove. Moves the file to the given file
6. pwdpresent working directory. Shows the directory where user is present
7. rmremove. Deletes the file
8. rmdirremove directory. Deletes the directory- if it empty
9. mkdirmake directory. Creates the named directory
10. catconcatenates. Displays the contents file scrolling continuously
11. dfdisk free. Shows free space available on the hard disk/cd/dvd/usb -mounted systems
12. head text filter. Shows the number of lines you specify from the beginning of file
13. man manual pages. Shows the manual pages on the item mention -if available -in the system
14. su substitute user. Substitutes the user named. If no user-id is given root is assumed
15. tail text filter. Shows the number of lines specified -from the end(default value -10 lines
16. tarTapeArchive.Archives mentioned files-directories to a given file
17. trtransliterate. Translates sets of characters specified - e.g., lower case to upper case
18. wcword count. Counts characters, words or lines - as specified in a given file
19. chmodchange permissions. Changes the read-write-execute permissions
20. cutdelete. Cuts specified columns or fields from input text
21. dudisk usage. Shows the amount of disk used
22. findfind. Searches for the given file in the prent directory/its subdirectories
23. grepglobal regular expression parse. Searches
24. gzipGNU zip compression. Compresses the given file
25. lessPrevents scrolling. Displays part of the file, moving forward/backward
26. morePrevents scrolling. Displays part of the file moving one way only - forward
27. passwdMeant for change of password. The command asks for new password
28. passwd [user-id]Change of password of an user by root. "passwd xyz" will change the password of the user "xyz"
29. sedStreamingEDitor. With sed multiple replacements of selected items with required items are possible
30. bcbackground calculator. It starts calculator on command line
31. nano nano editor. Starts nano editor.Input can be typed, or copied and pasted and saved
32. vim vim editor. Starts Vim Editor. Files can be created and saved
33. gedit GNU Editor. Opens geditor. Input can be typed or copied and pasted and saved
34. mkisofsMake cd image. Creates an iso file from the given file/directory
35. playTotem Player. Starts the player to play ogg/flac/avi/ogv formats-mp3 format not supported
36. awkAwk or gawk utility. Useful for making substitutions in the entire text or file with one command
37. dmesgDisplay Booting Message. It is the log file showing the full events occuring on booting
38. killTerminate the process. Terminates the process or processes as specified
39. hostnameName of the system. Gives the name that is given to the system
40. exitTerminate. Terminates- closes the existing process or work
41. uptimeTime the system is working. Shows the time the sytem is working since present booting- start up
42. date Time and Date. Shows the time ( as in the system) and date when the command is typed
43. dumpUtility for taking backup. Takes back up of given location or directory
44. rsyncUtility for taking backup. Takes backup of given directories to local or another system
45. nlnumber lines. Numbers lines of content in the given file.
46. splitcut the file. Splits the file into a number of smaller sizes
47. colColumn. Change a file with columns(like man pages) to plain text
48. tree Shows the content of directories in a tree-like format.

All these commands have additional modifiers- extensions that give additional functionality. Type a command with "-help" or "man"- like this -"man tar" or "ls -help" to get complete details of its usage.

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